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The Caspean Sea

Oil Platform in Caspean Sea

The Caspean Sea is the largest lake on earth, which is closed and does not swell. Actually, the Caspean Sea is the largest body of water that does not pour its waters anywhere. It is called a Sea because of the huge size, covering 371 000 square kilometers, but in essence, it is a lake. Its waters are salted and wash the shores of five countries - Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, and Azerbaijan.

Specific to the Caspean Sea is that in the past it was quite a bit larger, but holds a trend toward steadily reducing its area. Around 1930 Caspian Sea extended about 442, 000 square kilometers, and by 1980 its area was reduced to 368, 000 square kilometers.

Name Caspean Sea comes from the people of the ancient Caspeans. Once they lived in the area between Transcaucasia and he western lands. The boundaries of Caspian Sea allow the five countries access to the huge basin. The largest lake on earth is located between the northern areas of Iran and Russia. Iran touches the salty waters of the Caspean Sea with it’s three coastal provinces - Gilyan, Golestyani, Mazanderan.

This here fertile land afforested with trees and rice paddies makes an impression. In Iran the desert landscape dominates. Over the past two decades political and economic disputes between the five countries on determining the exact status Caspean Sea have not stopped. Is it really a lake or sea is crucial, according to international conventions.

If Caspean Sea is actually a sea, then the countries that surround it must issue a huge number of permits for foreign shipping vessels. If you say the Caspean Sea is actually a lake, then Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, and Azerbaijan do not have to give permission for access to foreign vessels or companies engaged in extraction of energy resources.

The status of lake for the Caspean Sea requires the division of the territory into five parts, which are calculated depending on the shoreline of all five countries. That is what would largely disfavor some of the larger countries, which leads to never ending disputes between them.

The salinity of Caspean Sea varies between 11-13 %, and in the Northwest it reaches 0.05 %. The water level of the Caspean Sea is lower than that of the World Ocean - about 28 meters, over the centuries it is constantly changing. In the southern part Caspean Sea reaches its greatest depth and is measured as a record for the lake at 1025 meters. Northern areas of the Caspean Basin are shallow, with average water depth reaching 22 meters.

The vast area of the Caspean Sea gives the function of an important waterway. Moreover, on the shelf of the water pool were discovered large deposits of oil and natural gas. The largest ports on the shores of the Caspean Sea are cities like Astrakhan, Makhachkala, Baku, Lenkoran, Aktau. The Caspean Sea is rich in fish, which is a prerequisite fo it to develop very strong fishing and dominate the catch of sturgeon.

Into the Caspean Sea flow large rivers like the Volga, Ural, Terek, Kura and others. Tourism on the banks of Caspean Sea is quite well developed. Countless small and large resorts are springing up constantly along the large water basin, best known are Caspian Riviera (Noshahr complexes, Rasht, Ramsar, Babulsar and Bandar-e Anza).

Turkmenistan has recently opened a lavish ceremony resort worth 1.5 billion dollars on a desert coast of the Caspean Sea. The luxury complex is named Turkmenbashi and extends over an area of 5000 hectares and has a length of 26 km.



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