Tallinn is the capital of Estonia and one of the most beautiful Baltic cities that can offer visitors many exciting experiences against the backdrop of ancient architecture. Tallinn is located on the south coast of the Gulf about 80 kilometers from Helsinki. It is the chief administrative center and extends over the total area of 159.2 square kilometers. Today, Tallinn is considered one of the most important cities of the Baltic republics - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
Data on population in the lands of present-day Tallinn has been given from 5000 years ago. The first castle in Tallinn was built on the hill Toompea in 1050. The strategic geographical location of Tallinn - Russia, Europe and Scandinavia is responsible for numerous attempts to conquer of the local land over the centuries. In 1219 the Danes invaded in Tallinn, while conquesting parts of Estonia. In 1346 the Danes sold the city to the Teutonic Knights. About 8 thousand inhabitants of medieval Tallinn enjoyed many excellent resources available for the city and the better protection afforded by a massive wall and 70 defensive towers.
During the different historical periods Tallinn was ruled by Russians, Swedes and Danes. In the 19th century, during the urban industrial revolution, the Russian port city management was advanced. In the 20th century the city became the capital of a free Estonia, after the war between Germany and Russia.
After occupation by Soviet Russia in 1944, Tallinn became the capital of Soviet Estonia. In 1980 the Russian capital Moscow was to hold the Summer Olympics, in a town northeast of Pirita Tallinn Regatta. That is why at the time in Tallinn there were quite new buildings erected. After receipt of the Independence of Estonia by Soviet Russia infrastructure cultivation of Tallinn continues at a furious pace.
Today the historical center of Tallinn was declared a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Although Tallinn was bombarded during World War II, the Old Town is almost intact. There to includes builds from the 15th century in the Gothic style including the church of St. Olaf, which reached a record height of 123 meters, and between 1549 and 1625 years this church was considered the tallest building in the world.
The old town is situated on a rocky hill, which is called locally, Toompea. In the mid 14th century, bishops and nobles who lived on the hill were separated by traders and craftsmen who lived in the lower parts of Tallinn, through the fence wall which even today can be seen.
In the Old Town of Tallinn you can enter the, Yalg Peak tower which was built in 1380. In it you can reach the mayor's Square, which lies the beautiful cathedral "Alexander Nevski". Its bulb domes are characteristic of the architecture of orthodox temples and are particularly attractive. Icons and mosaics inside of it were brought all the way from Saint Petersburg.
Nearby you can see the parliament building in Tallinn, which is located in an interesting pink baroque building with a castle in the historical center of Tallinn. The tour of the castle is also an attractive experience. From its towers there has been three maintained, one of which is the Tall Hermann, which is most impressive fortification of Tallinn. In Tallinn you can see the oldest church in Estonia - Lutheran Cathedral which was built in the 14th century.