The golden treasure of Varna is a huge archeological find discovered near the sea capital of Bulgaria - Varna. In essence, the golden treasure of Varna is the largest group of gold objects discovered in the world. Varna golden treasure is the oldest processed gold ever found in Europe and today is attributed to the so-called, Varna Culture.
The golden treasure was discovered accidentally, when excavation of the tunnels took place to put a phone cable through. The first find was located 500 meters north of Lake Varna and four kilometers west of downtown Varna.
The vast archaeological precious treasure found in the territory of the so called, Varna Necropolis (BXH). There the total area of 7500 square meters stages 294 graves that were discovered with more than 3000 golden objects.
The total weight was more than 6 kg. The golden treasure was found at this location in 1972, and further archaeological activities deployed one of the largest precious historical collections worldwide. The experts found tombs and golden treasures dating from the late fourth and early fifth century.
Subsequent excavations found that at this place is located an ancient necropolis from the Chalcolithic period. There in addition were a large number of potteries, stone and flint tools, objects made of bronze and ivory and many ornaments of gold and shells were also found.
Among the richest finds was grave № 43. A skeleton of a 40-50 year-old man who was about 170-172 cm tall was found inside. He was wearing very generous and richly decorated clothes which gives reason to suppose that he was a priest.
According to studies of the Varna Archaeological Museum, it is clear that the ruler had died violently. Further evidence of this are the precious objects - 990 pieces of gold jewellry were found with a total weight around 1.5 kg.
In his right hand, which was bent at the elbow was a scepter, symbolizing power. The neck of the king or priest was decorated with three strings of 890 beads of gold, weighing a total of 499 grams. Gold plates decorated his clothing and there were precious diadem around the head and on the left side of him lay a bow. Besides these royal characters, in the same tomb there were found many bronze and stone objects, such as copper ax, chisel, awl, needle, sharp knives, and a crock.
The flank of the priest was covered with golden phallus, which was composed of ornaments, forming the shape of a thimble.
In the tomb more than 850 gold objects were found. The type of objects suggests that these were gifts that are associated with deities of cattle. There were two gold plates, which are animal figures, 30 stylized animal heads with horns and astragalus.
Today the greatest archaeological find of the 20th century, known as the golden treasure of Varna, can be seen in 6 rooms in the Varna Archaeological Museum. There are a few of the most - significant graves with all objects and jewelry discovered in them. On both sides of the entrance are shown graves with masks of human faces from the finding of the golden treasure of Varna.
These masks were modeled on the spot and were lined with gold objects on them. The experts have found graves of civilization in ancient Thracian, which for a long period were dominated by a stranger land. Scientific analysis of carbon shows that civilization existed around 6000 years BC, which coincides with the emergence of the Sumerian and Assyrian civilizations.
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