Bosphorus

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Bosphorus

Bosphorus is where the two continents - Europe and Asia find their common ground. Bosphorus is connecting the Marmara and Black Sea, in parallel, it is "parallel", which separates the European part of Turkey and Rumelia of Asian, Anatolia.

On both sides of the Bosphorus is located the colorful capital of Turkey Istanbul. The name, Bosporus lays its name from the Greek root Βόσπορος. For residents of Istanbul, Bosphorus exists with the name, Boaza.

The ancient Greeks called the Bosphorus, Kerchenski. The economic importance of the Bosporus is based on the fact that it provides access to the Mediterranean and the world's oceans and large parts of Russia, Ukraine, Transcaucasia and south-eastern Europe. Main unit in is the exports over the Bosphorus for oil, which is transported in the direction of Russia and the Caspian region. For centuries, Bosphorus is a fundamental and key point for passenger transport and international trade.

Today, the Turkish city Istanbul has a landmark of two bridges which were built over the Bosphorus and they united Europe and Asia. The first bridge was named Bridge Atatürk and the second, Bridge Boazichi.

Atatürk Bridge was built entirely in English text as the campaign of raising and financing of Atatürk Bridge over the Bosporus was achieved thanks to the Anglo-Germanic from the consortium. Ataturk Bridge is considered one of the largest worldwide. Its size reaches a length of 1074 meters.

Supports of this bridge over the Bosphorus reach a height of 165 m. There the movement of vehicles is organized into six lanes. With the construction of the Ataturk bridge transport became of radical change. Before it was erected the passage between Europe and Asia happened by ferry, which takes much more time waiting in uncomfortable and slower queues. The bridge was finally completed in 1973.

The second bridge over the Bosphorus was named after the conqueror Fatih Sultan Mehmet. This second structure over the Bosphorus was built by Japanese engineers, architects and specialists, as the final project amount is estimated at around 130 million dollars. Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge was finally completed and commissioned in 1988. Its length reaches 1090 meters. Today the project is completed and a third bridge over the Bosporus is a separate design and has a tunnel under the Bosporus itself.

Bosporus itself was formed just 7500 years ago, which is scientifically justified. Initial water levels in the Black and Mediterranean sea are much lower. At the end of the last glacial period, resulting in melting of large ice masses, the water level rises provoking a powerful stream of water for several days. These data are based on the bottom edge of the Bosphorus.

Today the coast of the Bosphorus is about 30 km. In the northern part it reaches a maximum width of 3700m and in the lower part between the fortresses and Anadoluhisara Rumelihisara Bosporus is approximately 750 meters wide. The average depth of the Bosphorus in the central part ranges from 36 to 124 meters.

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